Running Bamboos have naturally shallow and horizontal root systems, and as such, prefer wider, shallower planters, mimicking their normal growth habit.
Clumping Bamboos, while possessing self-limiting rhizome systems, have rather extensive root systems, often extending up to 6 times the diameter of the plant's base diameter. So, they quickly become root bound and will display yellowing leaves and stunted growth.
Also, it is unrealistic to expect to grow Giant bamboos such as Moso, Robert Young, or even Henon in small, patio containers.
There are a number of bamboos that are more well suited to container planting, due to scale, a 'tighter' natural growth habit, and general hardiness.
Please note, the ultimate height and culm diameter of a container grown bamboo will be much smalller than expected from an in-ground planting of the same species.
Some bamboos well suited for container planting are:
Pleioblastus amarus in poolside planter box
Phyllostachys nigra 'Black'
Black Bamboo, planted in a re-purposed courtyard fish pond, New Orleans